According to Henry Jenkins, Appropriation is, "The ability to meaningfully sample and remix media content." This remixing of content involves creating mash ups, which are compilations of different pieces of media, as well as mods, or the 3rd party modification of games. So, how does this fit as a 21st century skill, one that we envision as necessary for our digital natives?
Sampling and remixing are ways that students can learn and apply the NETS and AASL standards:

  • Students are able to pursue personal and aesthetic growth in ways we never imagined 5 years ago.

  • They are no longer limited to pen and paper to demonstrate their Creativity and they have the world at their fingertips.

  • Critical Thinking and Problem Solving skills as well as collaboration and communication skills are developed on gaming forums where students identify problems with a particular game, then modify the code in order to enhance the game quality.
  • Enables the development of skills in working with diverse groups of people, promoting flexibility and adaptability as people from all over the world have access to the same media and are able to exercise their rights and freedoms of speech.
  • It is undeniable that students are quickly learning skills in “Technology Operations and Concepts,” usually at a much faster pace than adults.
My vision of what will soon be considered creative original work is a remix of the definition and my own (edited parts in purple).

o·rig·i·nal (

–adjective1. belonging or pertaining to the beginning, extension, or modification of something
2. new; different; fresh; inventive; novel
3. arising from or proceeding one's experiences, observations, or the work of others
4. capable of thinking or acting in an independent, creative, or individual manner as well as in a collaborative manner with individuals in different geographical locations and cultural mindsets.
5. created, undertaken, or presented in a new way for the first time
6. being something from which a copy, a translation, or the like is made with attribution being given to contributing content creators.

In fact, "Contemporary creativity may no longer be focused towards creating original content, but is a pracice of rip, mix, and burn where content is taken, appropriated, adapted, mixed, and distributed in a way in which consumption of media and information becomes a productive act of remixing, transformations, and creation of mash-ups of content from various sources," (Hedberg and Brudvik 2008).

What IS...


"In music, sampling is the act of taking a portion, or sample, of one sound recording and reusing it as an instrument or element of a new recording. This is typically done with a sampler, which can be a piece of hardware or a computer program on a digital computer" (Wikipedia). When creating a MashUp, artists will often use short samples of songs. is one website that enable users to upload music they have sampled and remixed. is another website enabling the resampling, sharing, and consumption of remixes. One needs to consider Copyrights, but there are several websites that enable the legal use of music samples. One of which is


Remixing is creating an alternative version of a song or video.
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Modding involves changing a hardware or software for a purpose that was not originally intended by the Copyright holder. In essence, it is third party game modification ( The modding of video games demonstrates higher level thinking skills, evident in this example,as players problem solve with a critical eye within the discussion forums. In these forums, players demonstrate sophisticated knowledge of game value, hardware, and software. (Hedberg and Brudvik 2008). Crytek, The Creative Assembly, Total War Center, and Epic Games provide everything you might need to mod.
Modding is not only done to add value to existing computer games. It is also used for artistic purposes. While attending Jeff Utecht's workshop at the East Asia Regional Conference for Overseas Schools, March 2010, Jeff shared an anecdote about a student who retold a scene from Romeo and Juliet, using a game mod. This student had created characters and objects, similar to those found in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, and re-enacted his own version of his selected scene, rather than type it out in a paper. He represented his understanding in a way that was different, fresh, inventive, and based on the work of others. This type of creative representation of new knowledge is one of the many ways modding can be used to enhance the student and teacher learning experience.

Mash Ups

​Using more than one content source and mixing them to create something new, usually sourced via an RSS feed.

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109852881429492977653.0004839ef20212aae87c8 for a mashup of the locations and websites of this EDES 545 section.
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In order for mashups to be adopted in education, certain conditions need to be met:
-open and discoverable resources (available on the web)
-open and transparent licensing (Creative Commons and
-open and remixable formats
(Lamb 2007)

How to make a mashup
Posted by Dawn

appropriation Appropriation is understood when students learn by taking culture apart and putting it back together. (Jenkins p55)

This example, called tweenbots, shows what can happen when techology is used in a larger social context which is also , to me, an idicator if learning being authentic to the students.

Currently, Copyright Law prohibits the use of samples if the artist of the new compilation profits or keeps the original artist from profiting. Many believe that Copyright Law is stifling the creativity of 21st century citizens. In the introductory YouTube video for this page, one speaker suggests karma, when he states, “Technology giveth and technology taketh away.” Technology is changing the way we create. It seems senseless not to use technology to its full potential.

While Copyright is always an issue, some companies are beginning to see the value in supporting open source, collaborative communities around the improvement of their products. Games like Half-Life and Counter-Strike actually provide players with the tools necessary to modify the game.


Knowledge is no longer a tree, it is a pile of leaves. The leaves can be assembled in different ways by people in different cultural contexts, through the use of Web2.0 tools. (Weinberger 2006)


Arizona State University (2010, March 2). Computer games can teach schools some lessons. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 9, 2010, from­ /releases/2010/02/100219204405.htm

Hedburg and Brudvik. (2008). "Supporting Dialogic Literacy Through Mashing and Modding of Places and Spaces." Theory Into Practice. 47: 138-149. DOI 10.1080/004058408019922362.

Jenkins, Henry. Building the Field of Digital Media and Learning. Online at

Lamb, Brian. (July/August 2007). "Dr.Mashup or, Why Educators Should Stop Worrying and Learn to Love the Remix." Educasuse.

Weinberger, D. (2006). "Webcast: The new shape of knowledge: From trees to piles of leaves. Retrieved April6, 2010 from