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Negotiation: The ability to travel across diverse communities, discerning and respecting multiple perspectives, and grasping and following alternative norms

(Jenkins, Purushotma, Weigel, Clinton, & Robison, 2006).


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eboy 'Foobar' poster - joanofacrtan's photostream - http://www.flickr.com/photos/kontent/311985069/


Jenkins defines this skill “first, as the ability to negotiate between dissenting perspectives, and second, as the ability to negotiate through diverse communities.” (p. 99).

According to Social Media Use Increases 82% Worldwide, the Nielsen January 2010 report on social media use found that time spent on social networking sites has increased from 3 hours per month to 5.5 hours per month, representing a 82% increase over the previous year. Users spend the most Internet time on social networks and blogs; social web sites such as Facebook are now the most common homepages for users.

“In such a world, youths need skills for working within social networks, for pooling knowledge within a collective intelligence, for negotiating across cultural differences that shape the governing assumptions in different communities, and for reconciling conflicting bits of data to form a coherent picture of the world around them” (Jenkins, Purushotma, Weigel, Clinton, & Robison, 2006, p. 32).

Jenkins cites Wikipedia as a model for teachers to encourage the development of new negotiating skills in their students’ learning. In collective creations it is essential that all points of view are heard. On Wikipedia, “[w]hen revising material rather than arguing each point, the group agrees to work together to insure that all points of view get heard. This is what Wikipedians call adopting a "neutral point of view", which is understood here as a goal or ideal shaping the writing process as much or more than it is seen as a property that can be achieved by any given entry” (Jenkins, 2007).

As David Weinberger says, "It's not about who is right and who is wrong. It's how different points of view are negotiated, given context, and embodied with passion and interest.” (Jenkins, 2007).

This sensitivity to the rights of others to hold differing attitudes and opinions is critical in the 21st century, where the online world offers
multicultural sakura by shapeshift - http://www.flickr.com/photos/30008272@N00/135737894
multicultural sakura by shapeshift - http://www.flickr.com/photos/30008272@N00/135737894
us new challenges. The world of social media transmits culture rapidly, but it can also “be deployed as a weapon of exclusion and, as a consequence, as a tool for enforcing conformity to peer expectations” (Jenkins, Purushotma, Weigel, Clinton, & Robison, 2006, p. 99).


We must help our students “acquire skills in understanding multiple perspectives, respecting and even embracing diversity of views, understanding a variety of social norms, and negotiating between conflicting opinions.” This will help us all to “appreciate and value differences in background, experience, and resources as contributing to a richer pool of knowledge” (p. 100).


While digital natives do much of their learning outside school, they still need guidance and mentorship from knowledge professionals. As teacher librarians we must ensure we explicitly teach our students negotiation skills.

The 21st Century Teacher Librarian


In her Manifesto for 21st Century School Librarians - You know you are a 21st century school librarian if you . . , Joyce Valenza has collected a list of 21st century practices for teacher librarians. Here are those that refer specifically to fostering negotiaton skills in our students, our colleagues, and ourselves:

Digital School Library and the Information Landscape

Reading

· You consider marketing your books in new ways using social networking tools like FunnelBrainor Shelfarior LibraryThing.or GoodReads
· Your students blog or tweet about what they are reading.
· Your blog features book trailers and interactive widgets relating to reading.
· Your screensavers promote great reads
· You review books in your own blogs and wikis
· You link to available ebook collections using such tools as Google Books, International Children’s Digital Library(Also check out Reading2.0and BookLeads Wiki for book promotion ideas)
· Consider new ways to promote reading. You are exploring downloadable audio books, Playaways, Kindles.
· Work together with learners to create and share digital booktalks or book trailers.
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Web Trends Map - Yes, i'm guccio's photostream - http://www.flickr.com/photos/11979533@N00/441921094


Digital School Library and the Information Landscape

· Know that searching various parts of the Web may require emerging tools as well as traditional ones. You offer an array of search toolsthat reach into blogs and wikis and Twitter and images and copyright-friendly mediaand scholarly content, as well as your databases.
· Make sure your learners and teachers can (physically & intellectually) access developmentally and curricularly(?) appropriate databases, portals, and websites, blogs, videos, and other media.
· Organize the Web for learners. You have the skills to create a blog or website or wiki to pull together resources to meet the information needs of your learning community. That presence reflects your personal voice. It includes your advice as well as your links. You make learning an engaging and colorful hybrid experience. You intervene in the research process online while respecting young people’s need for independence.
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http://www.flickr.com/photos/oceanflynn/366423504/sizes/o/ ocean.flynn
·
Are helping learners put together their own information spaces using blog widgets, and iGoogle gadgets, and browsers like PageFlakes and NetVibes. You seek ways to help students learn to use push information technologies.
· Expanded your notion of searching. You work with learners to set up RSS feeds and tag clouds for research. Your own feeds are rich with learning content, evidence of your networking. You embed widgets and gadgets(including your own database widgets) wherever students live, work, and play.
· You consider new interactive and engaging communication tools for student projects--digital storytelling, wikis, podcasts, streaming video as possibilities beyond the mortal powers of PowerPoint
· Rethink what PowerPoint, what presentations should/could be! (See PowerPoint Reform Tools)
· Are integrating dynamic web 2.0 features in the library's web page such as Google calendars, RSS feeds, deliciousbookmarks, flickr photo galleries, slideshare presentations,blogs, surveys, "request for materials" boxes and others as ways to interact with and teach students.
Facilities
· Know your physical space is about books and way more than books. Your space is a libratory. You welcome media production—podcasting, video production, storytelling--producing and presenting. You welcome telecommunications events and group gathering for planning and research and social networking.
· Cope with ubiquity. No, learn to love it. Ubiquity changes everything. In one-to-one schools, students may visit the library less frequently. In such environments, in all modern, truly relevant environments, library must also be ubiquitous. Library MUST be everywhere. Librarians must teach everywhere, in and outside of the library. One-to-one classrooms will change your teaching logistics. You realize you will often have to partner and teach in classroom teachers’ classrooms. You will teach virtually. You will be available across the school via email and chat. You know that laptops can actually walk back to the library

Access , Equity, Advocacy

· Know that one-to-one classrooms will change your teaching logistics. You realize you will often have to partner and teach in classroom teachers’ classrooms. You will teach virtually. You will be available across the school via email and chat.

Digital Citizenship

· You recognize that the work your students create has audience.
· You recognize that they may share their ideas and their knowledge products to participate in dialogs beyond the walls of the library or classroom.
· You see the potential for student knowledge products--for sharing knowledge global, for creating powerful networks, for making social and political impact.
· You share with students their responsibilities for participating in social networks.

Copyright/Information Ethics

· Teach students about their own digital footprints (using tools likePipl) about safety in new landscapes
· Teach students about norms for appropriate behavior in wikis and blogs.

New Technology Tools

· Know this is only the beginning of social networking. Students will get to their Facebook and MySpace accounts through proxy servers and their cell phones despite any efforts to block them. You plan educationally meaningful ways to incorporate student excitement (and your own) for social networking. You establish classroom or library guidelines for their use during the school day.
· Grapple with issues of equity. You provide open source alternativesto students and teachers who need them. You lend flash sticks and laptops and cameras and . . . You ensure your students can easily get to the stuff they most need by using kid-friendly terms and creating pathfinders.You ensure that all students have access to audio and ebooks and databases.
· Use new tools for collaboration. Your students create together, They synthesize information, enhance their writing through peer review and negotiate content in blogs and wikis and using tools like GoogleDocs, Flickr, Voicethread, Animotoand a variety of other writingor mind mappingand storytellingtools.

Teaching and Learning
· Understand that learning can be multi-modal, media-rich, customized to the needs of individual learners.
· Think Web 2.0. You know the potential new technologies offer for interaction–learners as both information consumers and creative information producers.

Into the Future (acknowledging the best of the past)

· Continue to consider and revise your own 20/20 vision. Do you look ahead for what is coming down the road? Are you scanning the landscape? As the information and communication landscapes continue to shift, do you know where you are going? Do you plan for change? Not for yourself, not just for the library, but for the building, for your learners. Are you really leading? What does the information professional look like today? Ten years from today? If you do not develop strong vision, your vision will be usurped by the visions of others. You will not be able to lead from the center.
· See the big picture and let others see you seeing it. It’s about learning and teaching. It’s about engagement.
· Continue to retool and learn.




Negotiation: Transliteracies -Definition of online reading


"Online reading” may be defined as the experience of “text-plus” media by individuals and groups in digital, networked information environments. The “plus” indicates the zone of negotiation—of mutation, adaptation, cooptation, hybridization, etc.—by which the older dialogue among print, writing, orality, and audiovisual media commonly called “text” enters into new relations with digital media and with networked communication technologies. Aspects of this “plus” include:

1. The negotiation between technology and usage to create a material practice of reading
2. The negotiation between individual and social practices of reading.
3. The negotiation between media.
4. The negotiation between historical and contemporary reading practices.


Negotiation skills are also represented in the Framework for 21st Century Learning developed by the The Partnership for 21st Century Skills. These are from the P21 Framework Definitions:

21st century interdisciplinary themes

Global Awareness

· Using 21st century skills to understand and address global issues

· Learning from and working collaboratively with individuals representing diverse cultures, religions and lifestyles in a spirit of mutual respect and open dialogue in personal, work and community contexts

· Understanding other nations and cultures, including the use of non-English languages (p. 2)


21st century interdisciplinary themes
CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION
Work Creatively with Others

· Be open and responsive to new and diverse perspectives; incorporate group input and feedback into the work

· Demonstrate originality and inventiveness in work and understand the real world limits to adopting new ideas (p. 3)


21st century interdisciplinary themes
MEDIA LITERACY
Create Media Products
· Understand and effectively utilize the most appropriate expressions and interpretations in diverse, multi-cultural environments (p. 5)

LIFE AND CAREER SKILLS
Today’s life and work environments require far more than thinking skills and content knowledge. The ability to navigate the complex life and work environments in the globally competitive information age requires students to pay rigorous attention to developing adequate life and career skills.

FLEXIBILITY AND ADAPTABILITY

Adapt to Change

· Adapt to varied roles, jobs responsibilities, schedules and contexts

· Work effectively in a climate of ambiguity and changing priorities

Be Flexible

· Incorporate feedback effectively

· Deal positively with praise, setbacks and criticism

· Understand, negotiate and balance diverse views and beliefs to reach workable solutions, particularly in multi-cultural environments (p. 6)


SOCIAL AND CROSS-CULTURAL SKILLS

Work Effectively in Diverse Teams

· Respect cultural differences and work effectively with people from a range of social and cultural backgrounds

· Respond open-mindedly to different ideas and values

· Leverage social and cultural differences to create new ideas and increase both innovation and quality of work (p. 7)


Extensive support materials are available to help educators teach these skills. Go to The Partnership for 21st Century Skills - Tools and Resources.


What Can Be Done?


Educators can foster negotiation skills when they bring together groups from diverse backgrounds and provide them with resources and processes that ensure careful listening and deeper communication. (Jenkins, Purushotma, Weigel, Clinton, & Robison, 2006).


"The only true exploration, the only true fountain of youth would not be to visit foreign lands, but to possess other eyes, to look at the universe through the eyes of others" Marcel Proust, as quoted on the Cultura web site.




Negotiation: Education Takes on a Global Dimension

New doors open as students at Chicago's Walter Payton College Prep learn an international perspective reinforced by four years of language study, global videoconferences, and travel abroad.



Negotiation: Success Spoken Here: Preparing Citizens of the World

Seattle's John Stanford International School immerses students in global awareness.




Negotiation: Flat Versus Round World

Flat Vs. Round World - David Armano's photostream - http://www.flickr.com/photos/7855449@N02/2779596419/
Flat Vs. Round World - David Armano's photostream - http://www.flickr.com/photos/7855449@N02/2779596419/



Negotiation: The Flat Classroom - Students travel across diverse communities, discern and respect multiple perspectives, and grasp and follow alternative norms.


Keynote by Judy O'Connell, 'Pandora's Box: Fresh start in a new world' for the Flat Classroom Project 10-1 February 2010



Find more videos like this on Flat Classroom Project




Negotiation: A multicultural reality



The Cultura Project

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Cultura is a Web-based, intercultural project situated in a language class, that connects American students with other students in different countries.
The objective of Cultura is to help our students develop understanding of the values, attitudes, beliefs and concepts inherent in another culture; to understand how people in the other culture interact, look at the world and frame their thoughts and ideas.



Snowblog Project -
Approach: "Knowing that true dialogue can develop only between critical thinkers, creative, good comprehenders of meaning and literate people. Thus empowering participants, helping them acquire higher order thinking, is prioritized in our model, while at the same time adapting content-based activities to cultural differences."



http://www.flickr.com/photos/oceanflynn/366423504/sizes/o/ ocean.flynn



References
Bauer, B., DeBenedette, L., Furstenberg, G., Levet, S., & Waryn, S. (2007). Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education: The Cultura Project. In J. A. Belz & S. L. Thorne (Eds.), Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp. 31-61). Retrieved from http://www.personal.psu.edu/‌slt13/‌589_s2007/‌BauerEtAl_2ch_1st.PDF

Ellis, K. (2006, March 1). Success spoken here: Preparing citizens of the world [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/‌success-spoken-here

Ellis, K. (2007, September 26). Education takes on a global dimension [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/‌global-dimension-walter-payton

Information Policy. (2010, February 22). Social media use increases 82% worldwide. Retrieved April 8, 2010, from http://www.i-policy.org/‌2010/‌02/‌social-media-use-increases-82-worldwide-nielsen-report-confirms-growing-power-of-bloggerwaves-business-strategy.html

Jenkins, H. (2007, June 26). What Wikipedia can teach us about the new media literacies (part one) [Web log post]. Retrieved from Confessions of an Aca/‌Fan: http://henryjenkins.org/‌2007/‌06/‌what_wikipedia_can_teach_us_ab.html

Jenkins, H. (2007, June 27). What Wikipedia can teach us about the new media literacies (part two) [Web log post]. Retrieved from Confessions of an Aca/‌Fan: http://henryjenkins.org/‌2007/‌06/‌what_wikipedia_can_teach_us_ab_1.html

Jenkins, H., Purushotma,, R., Weigel,, M., Clinton, K., & Robison, A. J. (2006, October 19). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century (Monograph). Retrieved from Massachusetts Institute of Technology website: http://mitpress.mit.edu/‌books/‌chapters/‌Confronting_the_Challenges.pdf

O’Connell, J. (n.d.). Keynote by Judy O’Connell, ‘Pandora’s Box: Fresh start in a new world’ for the Flat Classroom Project 10-1 February 2010 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://flatclassroomproject.ning.com/‌video/‌video/‌show?id=928031%3AVideo%3A57188

Our approach » LanguageConnections. (2010). Retrieved April 11, 2010, from http://www.languageconnections.org/‌?page_id=118
Smirnova, L. (2010). Snowblog 2010 project [Other]. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/‌milasunshine/‌snowblog-2010-project

Transliteracies » definition of online reading. (2006, January 7). Transliteracies » research in the technological, social, and cultural practices of online reading. Retrieved April 9, 2010, from http://transliteracies.english.ucsb.edu/‌category/‌research-project/‌definition-of-online-reading

Valenza, J. (2010). You know you’re a 21st century librarian if . . . In Informationfluency [wiki]. Retrieved April 10, 2010, from http://informationfluency.wikispaces.com/‌You+know+you%27re+a+21st+century+librarian+if+.+.+.

What is Cultura? (2009). Cultura. Retrieved April 11, 2010, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology website: [[http://cultura.mit.edu/‌community/‌index/‌cid/‌1]]